January 1, 1970

For visual depictions of the progress of the War in Europe and on the Western Front, and a list of the battles, with lots of detailed annotations, click here.

For visually graphic (animated) maps showing the progress of the war, and the movement of invasion and retreat by the various powers, see here:

In Europe.

In Europe and the Pacific.

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Without help – material and military – Britain, Churchill knew, had no chance of winning. One of Churchill’s most important contributions to this period of the war was to establish a close relationship with Roosevelt and the US.

Churchill later referred to the letter from Roosevelt in his speech, ‘Give us the tools’ (9 February 1941), reflecting his relief from financial anxiety and a renewed sense of purpose.

In March 1941 the Lend-Lease agreement between the US and Britain meant that Britain could at last secure much-needed supplies and ammunition from the US. They were to come to Britain’s aid much more aggressively towards the end of the year.

Churchill left Britain for a meeting with Roosevelt – their first get-together since 1918 – in August. Although Roosevelt was by no means ready or able to declare war, Churchill saw the meeting – and the Charter they issued on 14 August – as the first vital step on the road to a shared commitment to defeat the enemy.

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